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Nike Shox Mens Blue

Nike Shox Mens Blue

marsh landscapes in an undeveloped coastline section of the Plum Island Estuary in Massachusetts. A nitrogen flux model Wollheim developed was used to demonstrate potential areas of global vulnerability. "With nutrient enrichment increasing globally due to human activities, these results suggest salt marsh vulnerability to nitrogen pollution could be a widespread concern," says Wollheim, an assistant professor in the UNH department of natural resources and the environment and the Institute for the Study of Earth, Oceans, and Space. "Losses of healthy salt marsh have accelerated in recent decades, with some losses caused by sea level rise and development. The Plum Island experiment is the first to show that nutrient enrichment can also be a driver of salt marsh loss." Deegan notes that until this study it appeared salt marshes had an unlimited capacity for nutrient removal, with no harmful effects on the marshes themselves. "Now we really understand that there are limits to what salt marshes can do," she says. Usually, nutrients originating from septic systems, sewerage, and soil fertilizers on land flow with rainwater down to the coastal ocean. In the first few years, the nutrients caused the marsh grass along the creek edges to get greener and grow taller, but the taller grass also produced fewer roots and rhizomes, which normally help stabilize the edge of the marsh creek. Over time, wide cracks began forming in the grassy banks of the tidal creeks, which eventually slumped down and collapsed into the muddy creek. The Nike Shox Turbo 13 Black And Yellow

long term effect is conversion of a vegetated marsh into a mudflat, which is a much less productive ecosystem and does not provide the same benefits to humans or habitat for fish and wildlife. Wollheim broadened the results of the study by applying a Nike Shox Nz Womens

Eastern seaboard and other highly developed coastlines. Unexpectedly, they discovered that nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus from septic and sewer systems and lawn Nike Shox Mens Blue fertilizers can cause salt marsh loss. The researchers, including aquatic ecosystem ecologist Wilfred Wollheim of the University of New Hampshire, based their findings on a long term, large scale study of salt Nike Shox Nz Men's Grey

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global nitrogen flux model. The model quantifies changes in nitrogen inputs to the coastal zone due to human activity in different parts of the world, and accounts for the role of freshwater ecosystems to help lessen the impacts between pollution sources and the coastal zone. The model suggests that while aquatic ecosystems (streams, rivers, and lakes), can reduce fluxes to some degree, they are insufficient to prevent increased inputs to coastal zones. Maps of changes in nitrogen fluxes were overlaid with the distribution of salt marshes globally by Wollheim's colleagues Stanley Glidden and Rob Stewart of the EOS Water Systems Analysis Group. The resulting composite map shows global regions where salt marshes may be at risk due to increasing nitrogen loading. "This analysis makes clear that the implications of the field findings extend well beyond the local study area, and suggest that additional study of other global regions is needed," Wollheim says. The study is part of the Plum Island Ecosystem Long Term Ecological Research (PIE LTER) program, supported by the National Science Foundation (NSF).

Nutrient runoff turns useful salt marshes into useless mudflats

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